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Critical Thinking: A Guide for Disruptive Innovation

The news and fake news are flying around your ears these days, which calls for a critical attitude toward all the information we receive. What was true yesterday according to the mainstream media is already disproved today. Consider the information that Covid had escaped from a lab in Wuhan which was fake news at first and yet now seems very likely. Or the news that reputable scientists were sure that once vaccinated against covid-19, you could no longer infect others. The opposite turned out to be true. But even when it comes to less weighty information, sometimes facts turn out not to be true after all. Who can you still trust? 

Critical thinking has become an indispensable skill. But not only when it comes to news. Critical thinking also plays a major role in making everyday decisions and solving complex problems in the workplace

This blog post is about the dynamics of critical thinking, the obstacles that get in the way of critical thinking, and the ways you can overcome these obstacles. Especially when it comes to leadership and the importance of disruption.

What is critical thinking?

Critical thinking is a mental process that involves analyzing, assessing, and synthesizing information. It involves asking questions, examining assumptions, reasoning logically, and considering problems or situations from different perspectives.

Critical thinking can help you avoid mistakes, make better decisions, be more effective in your work, and communicate better. It allows you to see things from different perspectives, question (questionable) assumptions, and gain deeper insight into complex issues.

An example of critical thinking: hot dogs and cancer

Sodium Nitrite (E250) is added to processed meats such as deli meats and hot dogs. It had been known for years in the 1990s that Sodium Nitrite has a relationship with various cancers. For this reason, Susan Preston-Martin studied what young cancer patients ate and to her surprise, the cancer patients ate much more hot dogs than the test group. When this news was brought out on mainstream media, hot dog sales dropped as much as 8% within days.

I myself am not a fan of processed food and rarely if ever eat a hot dog, but is Susan Preston-Marie's statement accurate? The meat industry challenged the study and you could say they did so for financial gain. An 8% drop involves many millions of euros.

While we know for sure that Sodium Nitrite is in hot dogs and that it is related to cancer, we do not know for sure that hot dogs cause cancer. After all, did they use mustard or ketchup on their hot dog and what kind of buns did they eat? What else did their diet look like and did the children live in a safe environment?

In the 1970s and 1980s, I grew up in a family where spinach was reheated several times in the microwave. Spinach naturally contains nitrates, which can be converted into harmful nitrosamines when repeatedly exposed to high temperatures.

Nitrosamines are known for their potentially carcinogenic properties, but that was a problem for my mother. I never got any either and neither did my brothers, but who knows, maybe the affected children from Susan Preston-Marie's study also had a mother with unhealthy cooking habits. While hot dogs may have a relationship with cancer, we simply don't know for sure.

The Benefit of Critical Thinking

Critical thinking offers numerous benefits, both in your personal and professional life. Below are the most important benefits.

Preventing Mistakes

One of the biggest benefits of critical thinking is that it can help you avoid mistakes. This is because it encourages you to think about the possible consequences before taking action. By taking the time to carefully evaluate a situation, you can avoid unwanted outcomes.

For example, suppose you are about to make a big purchase, such as a new car. Instead of immediately deciding based on emotion or the appearance of the car, critical thinking would prompt you to consider other important factors, such as the car's reliability, maintenance costs, and how the car performs in safety tests.

Better Decision Making

Critical thinking also promotes better decision-making. It enables you to critically analyze information, consider alternatives, and make rational decisions. This is especially important in a professional context, where you need to make informed and effective decisions.

Take, for example, a manager who needs to decide how best to structure his team to increase productivity. By thinking critically, the manager could analyze all available information, weigh the pros and cons of different approaches, and ultimately make a decision that is best for the team and the organization.

More Effective Work

Critical thinking can make you more effective in your work by helping you find the best solutions to problems, improve processes, and come up with innovative ideas. It encourages you to look beyond the obvious and go deeper into issues, which can lead to better results.

Suppose you are a project manager working with a tight deadline. By thinking critically, you could figure out how to make work processes more efficient, which tasks should be prioritized, and how best to allocate resources to complete the project on time.

Better Communication

Finally, critical thinking promotes better communication by helping you present your thoughts clearly and logically. It can also help you better understand and evaluate others' arguments, which can lead to more productive discussions and negotiations.

For example, if you are engaged in a debate, critical thinking would help you articulate your points effectively, decipher your opponent's arguments, and come up with strong counterarguments. This can help you be more persuasive and perhaps 'win' the debate.

Realizing disruptive innovation

As an entrepreneur or leader, you need to be able to come up with disruptive ideas and solutions to stay ahead of the competition. You can only think disruptively if you challenge the status quo

Before Airbnb existed, it was abnormal if you just let a stranger sleep in your house for a fee. Back then, if you had commissioned a survey on people's willingness to rent out a room, it would certainly have come out that people were negative about it. However, that does not mean that under the right circumstances and with the right platform, the opinions of those same people can change.

How to Learn Critical Thinking

Developing critical thinking skills is a process that takes time, patience, and practice. These steps can help you become a critical thinker:

Ask Questions

The first step to critical thinking is to ask questions. Be curious and ask questions about everything around you. It can be helpful to start with basic questions such as "Who?", "What?", "Where?", "When?", "Why?" and "How?".

Example: Suppose you read a news article about a new medical treatment. Instead of blindly accepting the article, you might ask yourself questions such as: "Who conducted this study?", "How many people participated in the study?" and "Are there other studies that support or contradict these findings?".

Research Assumptions

We often assume things without questioning them. This can lead to misunderstandings and errors. This is why it is important to examine assumptions. This does not mean that you should question everything, but you should be willing to test your own beliefs and examine whether they are based on fact.

Example: Suppose you have always assumed that you are not good at maths because you struggled with it as a child. Instead of accepting this assumption, you could try re-evaluating your mathematical skills by taking a course or teaching yourself new mathematical concepts.

Think Logically and Reason

Logical thinking and reasoning is a fundamental part of critical thinking. It helps you understand cause and effect, make connections between ideas, and present thoughts in an orderly and understandable way.

Example: Suppose you have a problem at work. Instead of reacting impulsively, you could analyze the situation logically by identifying the causes of the problem, coming up with possible solutions, and considering the possible consequences of each solution.

Take Your Time

Finally, don't rush. Good critical thinking takes time. It is important to take time to fully understand information, consider different points of view, and make thorough analyses.

Example: Suppose you are considering changing jobs. Instead of making a decision immediately, you could take time to research all aspects of the new job, weigh the pros and cons, and maybe even seek advice from others before making a final decision.

The Disadvantages of Critical Thinking

While critical thinking has many advantages, it also has disadvantages. It can take time and energy to research things thoroughly. It can also lead to over-analysis, leaving you paralyzed by too many possibilities or scenarios.

Besides, it is impractical to constantly question everything and everyone. When it comes to life or death such as information during Covid-19 or what does or does not cause cancer, critical thinking is a useful and often important skill. But for less trivial matters, the energy usually outweighs the benefit.

So while critical thinking is undoubtedly a valuable skill, it is not without its potential pitfalls. Listed below are the possible drawbacks of critical thinking.

Time and Energy

One of the main disadvantages of critical thinking is that it often takes a lot of time and energy. Unlike instinctive or impulsive action, critical thinking requires you to take time to gather, analyze, and synthesize information before coming to a conclusion. This can require a significant investment of time and mental energy that you might prefer to spend on something else.

For example, if you have to make an important decision at work, critical thinking can cause you to spend a lot of time considering all possible options, analyzing the pros and cons of each option, and thinking about possible consequences. This can be tiring and reduce your productivity in other areas.

Over-Analysis and Indecision

Another possible drawback of critical thinking is that it can lead to over-analysis or 'analysis paralysis'. This happens when you dive so deeply into analyzing and considering every possible option and outcome that you end up unable to make a decision.

For example, imagine you are considering moving to another city for a new job. You might start by considering all possible scenarios, such as the cost of living in the new city, the impact on your family life, opportunities for professional growth, and more. If you pay too much attention to every possible outcome, you might end up getting bogged down in the analysis and unable to make a final decision.

Possible Social Friction

Critical thinking can also sometimes lead to social friction. If you are constantly asking questions, challenging assumptions and pushing other people to justify their beliefs, this can be perceived as confrontational or annoying by others.

For example, if you are in a group discussion and you start questioning the group's generally accepted ideas, some people may find this unsettling or disrespectful, even if your intention is to promote a thorough and nuanced understanding of the issue.

Top 10 Barriers to Critical Thinking

While critical thinking is a valuable skill, there are several barriers that can make it difficult to think effectively. Here are the top 10 barriers to critical thinking:


We all have biases, which can influence our thinking processes and decision-making. These biases may be based on our personal experiences, beliefs, or values. They can prevent us from being objective and limit our ability to think critically.


A lack of knowledge or understanding can also hinder critical thinking. If we do not know enough about a topic, it is difficult to make an informed analysis or conclusion.

Hasty Conclusions

Sometimes we tend to draw hasty conclusions without considering all the facts. This can hinder our ability to think critically and lead to incorrect or incomplete conclusions.

Group pressure

Group pressure can also affect our thinking process. We all want to belong to a group, and sometimes this can mean suppressing our own thoughts and beliefs to fit in.

Emotional Assumptions

Our emotions can also play a role in our thinking process. We tend to believe things that confirm our emotions, even if they are not logical or factual.

Lack of Relevant Information

If we do not have all the relevant information, it is difficult to think critically effectively. This can happen if we do not have access to all the information, or if we are unable to correctly interpret the information we have.

Stress and fatigue

Stress and fatigue can also affect our ability to think critically. When we are tired or stressed, we tend to think less thoroughly and make decisions more quickly.

Misleading information

In the digital age, it is easy to spread false or misleading information. If we are unable to distinguish fact from fiction, this can seriously hamper our ability to think critically.

Too much self-confidence

Excessive self-confidence and thinking you are always right can also hinder critical thinking. If we are too confident, we may overlook important details or lose our ability to be objective.

Lack of Interest or Motivation

Finally, a lack of interest or motivation can hinder our ability to think critically. If we are not interested in a topic, it is likely that we will not invest much time or energy in understanding it thoroughly.

These are just some of the many possible obstacles to critical thinking. It is important to be aware of these barriers and develop strategies to overcome them.

The Impact of Cognitive Distortions on Critical Thinking

Cognitive distortions, also known as thinking errors, are systematic deviations from logical and rational thinking. They can have a major impact on our ability to think critically. Below is an explanation of how this happens.

What are Cognitive Distortions?

Cognitive distortions are ways in which our brain twists reality in ways that are usually irrational. These distortions can affect our thinking, decision-making, and interpersonal relationships. They are often the result of automatic thoughts and form the basis of many forms of therapy, including cognitive behavioral therapy.

The Effect on Critical Thinking

Cognitive distortions can hinder our ability to think critically by distorting our perception of reality and undermining our ability to think objectively. Below are a few examples:

1. Overgeneralization

Overgeneralization is a cognitive distortion where we draw broad conclusions based on a single event. This can happen, for example, when we make a mistake at work and then conclude that we "always" make mistakes or "never" do anything right. This way of thinking can hinder our ability to think critically by preventing us from looking at our performance objectively.

2. Catastrophizing

Catastrophizing is another form of cognitive distortion where we always expect the worst or exaggerate how bad a situation is. This can undermine our ability to think critically by preventing us from evaluating a situation objectively and rationally.

3. Personal Responsibility

This is a distortion where we feel responsible for things beyond our control. It can hinder our ability to think critically by preventing us from looking objectively at our role in a situation and understanding what we can and cannot control.

4. Black-White Thinking

This is a distortion where we see things in extreme, all-or-nothing terms. It can hinder our ability to think critically by preventing us from seeing nuances or understanding complex situations.

How to Overcome Cognitive Distortions

Recognizing and understanding these and other cognitive distortions is the first step to overcoming them. Therapy, mindfulness, and reflection can all help address these distortions and improve our ability to think critically. By examining our automatic thoughts and assumptions, we can learn to think more realistically and objectively, which can ultimately strengthen our critical thinking skills.

How to Overcome Obstacles to Critical Thinking

Overcoming obstacles to critical thinking is not an easy task. It requires awareness, commitment, and constant effort. Here are some strategies that can help you:

Develop self-awareness

The first thing to do is to become aware of your own thinking processes. Try to recognize when you fall into the trap of cognitive distortions, biases, or unfounded assumptions. Regularly ask yourself questions such as: "Is this really true?" or "Why am I thinking this?".

Being Open to New Information

Be willing to question your own views and be open to new information. This does not mean that you should blindly accept everything you hear or read, but you should be willing to explore new insights and perspectives.

Look for Reliable Sources

In the digital age, there is a lot of misleading or false information available. It is important to check the reliability of the sources of your information. Look for sources that are known for their accuracy and objectivity. So if a newspaper publishes something, look for the source of that information and investigate the reliability of that source.

Practice Reflection and Analysis

Take time to think reflectively. Analyze the information you have received and try to understand how it fits into your existing knowledge. Try to follow the logic of the arguments and identify any gaps or contradictions.

Learn from Your Mistakes

Everyone makes mistakes, and that's okay. Mistakes are an opportunity to learn and grow. When you notice that you have made a mistake in your thinking, take the time to understand what went wrong and how to avoid it in the future.

Practice Mindfulness

Mindfulness can also help overcome obstacles to critical thinking. By being mindful and attentive in the present moment, you can improve your concentration and avoid being carried away by irrational thoughts or emotions.

Overcoming obstacles to critical thinking is an ongoing process, but with patience and commitment, you can improve your skills and make more rational, informed decisions.

Critical Thinking Learning for Leaders and the Role of Disruption

In an era of constant change and uncertainty, critical thinking is more important than ever for leaders. It helps them make informed decisions, develop innovative and disruptive solutions, and cope with complex challenges. But what if there are obstacles in the way of this crucial ability? How can leaders learn to think critically and why is disruption necessary?

Disruption: Why it is NEEDED

Disruption, in the context of leadership and organizational behavior, means breaking the status quo to make room for new ideas, processes, and solutions. It is about stepping out of the comfort zone and challenging established beliefs, norms, and ways of working.

Disruption is necessary because it forces us to look at things in a different way. It pushes us to think critically, to question the way things have always been done, and to look for better, more efficient ways of doing things.

Critical Thinking as Key to Disruption

Critical thinking plays a crucial role in the process of disruption. It enables leaders to analyze the current situation, identify problems, generate alternative solutions, and determine the best course of action.

By overcoming barriers to critical thinking, leaders can create an environment open to new ideas and innovation. This can lead to improved processes, increased efficiency, and ultimately a more successful organization.

Overcoming Barriers to Critical Thinking: A Role for Leaders

Overcoming barriers to critical thinking requires both personal and organizational efforts. For leaders, it means working on their own thinking skills and creating an environment that supports critical thinking.

Here are a few ways leaders can do this:

Create an Open Culture

Leaders need to create an open and supportive culture where people feel free to ask questions and share their ideas. This means making room for discussion and debate and showing respect for different opinions and perspectives.

Encourage Reflection and Feedback

Leaders should also encourage reflection and feedback. This means setting aside time for reflection, encouraging employees to give and receive feedback, and emphasizing that mistakes are opportunities to learn and grow.

Continue to Learn and Grow

Finally, leaders must be committed to continuous personal and professional growth. This means being open to new ideas and approaches, constantly acquiring new skills and knowledge, and always looking for ways to improve yourself and your organization.

The Downside of Critical Thinking in Relation to Disruption

While critical thinking is a powerful tool for innovation and disruption, it can also be an obstacle. This is because critical thinking does not always mean being open to change. Instead, it can sometimes lead to resistance to new ideas and a strong urge to stick to how things have always been done.

Critical Thinking and Resistance to Change

Critical thinking means questioning, analyzing, and evaluating things. This can sometimes mean being skeptical or even resistant to new ideas. If you are too critical, you run the risk of getting stuck in a negative thinking cycle in which you overemphasize the risks and challenges of a new approach, rather than looking at the potential benefits.

Moreover, being too critical can lead to an "if it ain't broke, don't fix it" mentality. This can hamper innovation and change, as you may be less inclined to try new ideas or consider different approaches.

Finding the Right Balance

It is important to strike a balance between being critical and open to new ideas. You need to be able to critically assess new proposals, but also be willing to embrace change when it is valuable and necessary.

This means challenging yourself to think and act outside your comfort zone while critically evaluating your thought processes and decision-making. It also means being open to feedback and willing to adjust your approach based on new information or insights.


Critical thinking is a powerful tool for both personal and professional growth. By consciously working on developing your critical thinking skills and overcoming the barriers that stand in your way, you can be better prepared for the challenges and opportunities of the future.

As a leader, you can play a crucial role in promoting critical thinking within your team or company. By creating an environment where critical thinking is valued and rewarded, you can help your team become more effective and innovative, and help your organization successfully navigate through times of change and disruption.

Critical thinking is not just a skill, it is a mindset. It is the willingness to ask questions, to learn, and to constantly strive for improvement and growth. Whether you are a leader, a professional, a student, or just someone curious about the world, critical thinking can help you realize your potential and achieve your goals.

Developing your critical thinking skills is a journey, not a destination. It is an ongoing process of learning, growing and improving. So be patient with yourself, be curious and open-minded, and enjoy the journey!


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